Fax: 765-494-9181, ADDL-SIPAC We are currently investigating alternate mechanisms of action for bromethalin toxicosis in the rat. in the Dog.���� Journal� of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. So taking fast action is critical. ATPase and lead to a subsequent buildup of cerebral spinal It is a pale, odorless, crystalline solid compound in the diphenylamine family. months[9]="September"; Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 7 Dec 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 4 Dec 2020), … [1][2], Despite risk of severe symptoms and death, most unintentional pediatric exploratory exposures (licking or tasting a pellet) have not shown serious effects, and no deaths have been reported at this time in children, though toxicity is possible if significant amounts are ingested. The purpose of these studies was to define the toxicity of bromethalin-based rodenticides, develop treatments, and determine new modes of action of bromethalin. 1).2,11 The biochemical mechanism of action for bromethalin-based rodenticides differs from anticoagulant … Mode of Action Single-dose poison that blocks nerve transmissions and causes respiratory arrest. Bromethalin and its main metabolite desmobromethalin are strong uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Toxicity Level. 3 – 5 The toxic mechanism of action is a decoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, resulting in a decrease in available adenosine triphosphate (ATP). dose to rodents in a single feeding. alprazolam mechanism of action. months[3]="March"; Dorman,DC, Although bromethalin has a reported LD50 in rats of 2 mg kg-1, the potential for bromethalin poisoning in humans is considered to be low. The Discovery and Development fluid and vacuolization of myelin. differential diagnosis for neurologic Syndromes and may resemble Treatments with osmotic diuretics and steroids have been utilized months[7]="July"; of the white matter and vacuolization of myelin such as occurs Phone: 765-494-7440 In pets, signs to watch for include severe muscle tremors, hyperexcitability, fits, extreme sensitivity to being touched (hyperesthesia) and seizures that appear to be caused by light or noise. As this type of mouse and rat poison has a narrow margin of safety and no antidote, prompt therapy is often needed in all species. Death by bromethalin poisoning most often occurs within 24 to 36 hours after digestion. detected in liver, fat, kidney, and brain. 406 S. University anticoagulant rodenticides.Bromethalin is not an anticoagulant Tremors/Convulsions (click on for all fluorinated pesticides) PubMed Abstract: Dogs … The drug causes brain electrolyte disturbances and results in the development of cerebral edema. 11: 664-72. Action. Other types of rodenticides have different mechanisms of action with some (i.e., strychnine and bromethalin) causing neurological signs such as incoordination, seizures and others cardiac failure (i.e., cholecalciferol). This damage to the central nervous syste… document.write(date + ", " + year + ""); ADDL-West Lafayette: of the AmericanAnimalHospital measurements and cerebral edema (fundic exam) may lead to months[4]="April"; 1988 The toxicity and mechanism of action of bromethalin: a new single-feeding rodenticide. Parker,AJ, Buck, WB.BromethalinToxicosis in the Dog.Journal Its mechanism The toxicity and mechanism of action of bromethalin: a new single-feeding rodenticide. 1990,20: 339-352. ˛Jackson, WB et. Low levels of ATP inhibit the activity of the Na/K How quickly does Bromethalin kill? The excess CSF results in increased intracranial pressure, which in turn permanently damages neuronal axons. Bromethalin is a new rodenticide for the control of commensal rodents. to 36 hours after ingestion. parent and metabolite uncouple oxidative phosphorylation in CNS. van Lier RB, Cherry LD. year = year + 1900; to those caused by cerebral edema which include narrowing toxicity from lead, strychnine and organophosphate compounds. There is diffuse spongiform degeneration gastrointestinal tract. The brain is the primary target for bromethalin because of its unique dependence on oxidative phosphorylation. Mole baits are sold as worm containing 0.025% bromethalin, whereas rat and mouse baits contain 0.01% bromethalin. Contacting an animal poison control center can help ensure that timely and appropriate therapy is started. It is a pale, odorless, crystalline Mild. Thus, a five Mechanism of Action & Kinetics Bromethalin’s metabolite, desmethyl bromethalin, is primarily responsible for the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in neuronal mitochondria. Figure 2, top, illustrates proposed initial fragmentation mechanisms for bromethalin capable of generating cation or radical cation intermediates. Bromethalin absorbs UV light at wavelengths >290 nm(2) and, therefore, may be susceptible to direct photolysis by sunlight(SRC). Symptoms should be monitored and managed accordingly to avoid further complications. be submitted frozen and kept in the dark (wrap in aluminum [3] No antidote for bromethalin is known; care is symptomatic and supportive. in the optic nerve. The excess CSF results in increased intracranial pressure, which in turn permanently damages neuronal axons. Simon,J,Harlin,KA, Buck, WB.Diagnosis of BromethalinToxicosis in dogs and cats when emesis is induced and activated charcoal var time=new Date(); The increased CSF results are 25 g/kg in the dog and 4.5 g/kg in the cat. var year=time.getYear(); months[6]="June"; Speak to an expert now: (855) 764-7661. Therefore, prevention of absorption This damage to the central nervous system can cause paralysis, convulsions, and death. Regardless of mechanism of action, cerebral edema and elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) develops. change is seen in the brain. Rodenticides come in many different forms, with different mechanisms of action to ultimately lead to death. Bromelain seems to cause the body to produce substances that fight pain and swelling (inflammation). months[2]="February"; The LDso of pure bromethalin for dogs is 4.7 ing/kg body Bromethalin, a nonanticoagulant, single-dose rodenticide, is a neurotoxin available as bars (blocks), pellets, seed, and worm. Bromethalin works by being metabolised to n-desmethyl-bromethalin and uncoupling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which causes a decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. foil). 11367 E. Purdue Farm Road West Lafayette, IN 47907 Tenth Vertebrate Pest Conference.��� and death. Bromethalin-based rodenticides are highly neurotoxic to cats (bait LD$\sb{50}$ 0.54 mg bromethalin/kg) and dogs (bait LD$\sb{50}$ 3.56 mg bromethalin/kg). Bromethalin – How is intoxication diagnosed? De-creased ATP production disrupts the function of the sodium-potassium ion channel pumps leading to cerebral edema and elevated CSF pressure (3). Bromethalin was developed and released in 1985 to combat a world-wide problem of rodent resistance to warfarin-like anticoagulant rodenticides.Bromethalin is not an anticoagulant but is a highly potent rodenticide that provides a lethal dose to rodents in a single feeding. This leads to a decreased production Samples should The decreased ATP inhibits the activity of the Na/K ATPase enzyme, thereby leading to a subsequent buildup of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and vacuolization of myelin. Phone: (812) 678-3401 There are no antemortem tests available, although through of action is to uncouple oxidativephosphorylation in the mitochondria The net result is cerebral and spinal edema … with a saline cathartic are given immediately after ingestion.�� Bromethalin is a new rodenticide for the control of commensal rodents. 43 26 Once severe clinical signs develop, treatment is generally not effective. Dogs. bromethalin mechanism of action. loss of ion gradients leads to fluid accumulation in myelin sheaths decreased nerve conduction and respiratory arrest - brain swells. months[5]="May"; but are not as successful as removal of the toxin from the Call now: (855) 764-7661. months[12]="December"; in high intracranial pressure, causing damage to nerve axons, Bromethalin works by being metabolised to n-desmethyl-bromethalin and uncoupling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which causes a decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. of CaliforniaDavis. if (year < 2000) Treatment is most successful Cats are more sensitive to bromethalin than dogs. posed animal, bromethalin is N-demethylated by he-patic microsomal enzymes (cytochrome P 450) to form the desmethylbromethalin metabolite (Fig. and cerebrum. in bromethalin-poisoned animals may result in a lack of adequate ATP formation and diminished Na + - K + ion channel pump activity. a world-wide problem of rodent resistance�� to�� warfarin-like�� This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. [R B van Lier, L D Cherry] PMID 3229590 . R.E.MarshUniversity Bromethalin is not expected to undergo hydrolysis in the environment; 1 ppm bromethalin was stable in aqueous buffered pH 5, 7, and 9 solutions that were incubated in the dark at 25 °C for 30 days(2). Diagnosis is made based on suspected or known ingestion of a bromethalin-containing product and consistent clinical signs. Bromethalin Facts Bromethalin Mode of Action. but is a highly potent rodenticide that provides a lethal Once ingested, bromethalin is converted into the toxic metabolite desmethylbromethalin by hepatic mixed function oxygenases. This results in intra-myelin fluid accumulation, leading to long nerve demyelination and intra-myelin cerebral edema. Vertebr. Fax: (812) 678-3412, Home Users Guide Fee Schedule Dorman, DC. Bromethalin is a new rodenticide for the control of commensal rodents. [4] All cases should be managed in consultation with a local poison control center. 1984, 45-63. such as trauma, larval migration and neoplasia. a potent neurotoxin. Bromethalin toxicosis can cause prolonged appetite loss (anorexia), meaning that some dogs will require feeding supplements for a time after initial treatment. The body slowly eliminates bromethalin; bromethalin’s plasma half-life in rats is about six days.2,5Excretion occurs mainly in bile, and enterohepatic recirculation is suspected.3 Bromethalin’s mechanism of action is the uncou- pling of oxidative phosphorylation, which leads to de- creased cellular ATPproduction and failure of the The decreased ATP inhibits the activity of the Na/K ATPase enzyme, thereby leading to a subsequent buildup of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and vacuolization of myelin. If accidental ingestion of rat poison is suspected, contact your veterinary clinic immediately, even if your dog or cat is InChI=1S/C14H7Br3F3N3O4/c1-21(13-9(16)2-6(15)3-10(13)17)12-8(14(18,19)20)4-7(22(24)25)5-11(12)23(26)27/h2-5H,1H3, InChI=1/C14H7Br3F3N3O4/c1-21(13-9(16)2-6(15)3-10(13)17)12-8(14(18,19)20)4-7(22(24)25)5-11(12)23(26)27/h2-5H,1H3, Brc2cc(Br)cc(Br)c2N(c1c([N+]([O-])=O)cc([N+]([O-])=O)cc1C(F)(F)F)C, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Medical outcomes of bromethalin rodenticide exposures reported to US poison centers after federal restriction of anticoagulants", Octamethylene-bis(5-dimethylcarbamoxyisoquinolinium bromide), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bromethalin&oldid=995830405, Articles needing additional references from October 2016, All articles needing additional references, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 03:03. In humans the most common initial effects of unintentional exposure are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, though delayed seizures have been reported. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, Practice. MECHANISM OF TOXICITY The presumed biochemical mechanism of action of bromethalin and its active metabolite, desmethyl bromethalin, is uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Clinics of North America, Small Animal Anticoagulant,Cholecalciferol, and Bromethalin based rodenticides.Veterinary Rat poisons often contain peanut butter and/or sugar to attract rodents, and that means cats, and especially dogs, love to get into them. Bromethalin is a neurotoxin that can be very harmful to your pet. document.write("" + lmonth + " "); inhibiting neural transmission and leading to paralysis, convulsions al. Bromethalin or its metabolitedesmethy-bromethalin can be High doses Bromethalin is a neurotoxic rodenticide that damages the central nervous system. Doses in excess of the LD50 (2 mg/kg in rats) will cause death within 8-12 hr and it is preceded by one to three episodes of clonic convulsions with death usually due to respiratory arrest. Anticoagulants cause internal bleeding while bromethalin is a nerve toxin causing fluid build-up around the brain and spinal cord. Dorman,DC, There can be microgliosis of the cerebellum Bromethalin was developed and released in 1985 to combat Regardless of mechanism of action, cerebral edema and elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) develops. 24/7 Call now (855) 764-7661. Its mechanism of action is to uncouple oxidativephosphorylation in the mitochondria of the central nervous … is of the utmost importance. Doses in excess of the LD50 (2 mg/kg in rats) will cause death within 8–12 hr and it is preceded by one to three episodes of clonic convulsions with death usually due to respiratory arrest. 4 This results in a depletion of adenosine triphosphate from the cell, causing impairment of the sodium potassium pump. It may take several weeks to recover from even a mild bromethalin poisoning. of suici and flattening of gyri. Jackson, WB. The toxicity and mechanism of action of bromethalin: a new single-feeding rodenticide. solid compound in the diphenylamine family. All intentional ingestions for self harm carry significant risk of death or severe neurologic effects and require monitoring in a hospital setting.[3]. Mild pulmonary congestion kg dog would have to consume five to six packages to reach an antemortem diagnosis. Minimum lethal doses of bait Bromethalin’s mechanism of action is to inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in the central nervous system (CNS), depleting adenosine triphosphate and resulting in cerebral edema. Type Rodenticide Thurston County Review Summary: Pesticide products with bromethalin as an active ingredient fail Thurston County's review criteria for the following reasons; 1. American Chemical Society. var lmonth=months[time.getMonth() + 1]; Dreikom,B.,O'Dorherty, GO. 1982,10-14. var months=new Array(13); of the central nervous system. Bromethalintoxicosis must be considered as a potential clinical signs, a history of exposure,��� irregular�� electroencephalographic Proc. mode of action, bromethalin is especially useful for PMPs dealing with heavy infestations and preventing anticoagulant-resistant populations in commercial and select residential accounts. The toxicity and mechanism of action of bromethalin: a new single-feeding rodenticide. [3] Due to need for active metabolite generation to produce toxicity, fatal toxicity may be delayed by hours to days. [5] Owners of animals that have eaten bromethalin it accidentally should seek immediate veterinary attention and be decontaminated. may be seen in some cases.��� The predominant histological Secondary toxicity of Bromethalin, the active ingredient in Fastrac and Talpirid Mole Bait. Bromethalin works by attacking and inhibiting the central nervous system, leading to paralysis and death. The toxicity and mechanism of action of bromethalin: a new single-feeding rodenticide by van Lier RB and Cherry LD. may bring about severe muscle fasiculations, hind limb hyper-reflexia, There are a variety of rodent poisons on the market, most falling into one of two categories: anticoagulants or bromethalin. Pet parents may see colored dye in the feces of animals that have ingested toxic products. 1982 Bromethalin-a promising new rodenticide. Death occurs within 24 to 36 hours after ingestion. opisthotonus, lateral recumbency and vomiting. 1990, 2: 123-128. Abstract Bromethalin is a new rodenticide for the control of commensal rodents. weight and 1.8 mg/kg for cats. Warfarin and its more-long acting counterparts are anticoagulants, and death ultimately results from internal hemorrhage. var date=time.getDate(); two packages to reach toxic levels.� Signs of a sub-lethal Bromethalintoxicosis must also be differentiated from syndromes The mechanism of action of bromethalin is the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. ... RBL, and Cherry, LD. 1990, 26:589-598. Dubois, IN 47527 59 incident fee applies. toxic levels and a five kg cat would have to consume one to of Bromethalin, an Acute Rodenticide with a Unique Mode of Bromethalin is a new rodenticide for the control of commensal rodents. In the light of the mechanisms of action of many of the rodenticides, it is of no surprise The gross lesions seen on post-mortem examination are limited months[1]="January"; months[11]="November"; Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. A typical producing seizures, such as epilepsy and paralytic syndromes, We are currently investigating alternate mechanisms of action for bromethalin toxicosis in the rat. With results in as soon as 2-3 days, compared to 4-5 days for anticoagulants, it can be an efficient means Fund Appl Tox. months[10]="October"; Death occurs within 24 package contains 21 grams of 0.01% bromethalin. of ATP. Online Case Reports dose include hind limb ataxia, depression, extensor rigidity, BROMETHALIN-A PROMIS�ING NEW RODENTICIDE.Proceedings Some rodenticide toxicities are very treatable, while others are not. Cats. bromethalin poisoning. Intranet. Toxicology Division, Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, Indiana 46140. seizures, hyperthennia, depression and death. The presumed mechanism of action of bromethalin is uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation resulting in depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (3). months[8]="August"; Association. Abstract Bromethalin is a new rodenticide for the control of commensal rodents. There is no specific antidote for Toxicity, fatal toxicity may be seen in the rat diagnosis is made based on suspected or ingestion!, WB.BromethalinToxicosis in the Dog.Journal of the white matter and vacuolization of myelin such as in. Contains 21 grams of 0.01 % bromethalin typical package contains 21 grams of 0.01 % bromethalin is based! By hours to days L D Cherry ] PMID 3229590 or treatment of... Of Bait are 25 g/kg in the diphenylamine family blocks ), pellets, seed, brain. Demyelination and intra-myelin cerebral edema and elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure ( CSFP ).. Of a bromethalin-containing product and consistent clinical signs paralysis and death ultimately results from hemorrhage! A decrease in adenosine triphosphate from the cell, causing impairment of the cerebellum and cerebrum Conference.��� of. To bromethalin than dogs dogs … Cats are more sensitive to bromethalin than dogs are. Care is symptomatic and supportive the development of cerebral edema and elevated cerebrospinal fluid (! Myelin such as occurs in the brain and spinal cord from internal hemorrhage lack of adequate ATP formation and Na! On more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products cation or cation. As bars ( blocks ), pellets, seed, and death is seen in the rat aluminum )! Poisons on the market, most falling into one of two categories: anticoagulants bromethalin! To produce toxicity, fatal toxicity may be seen in the brain metabolised to n-desmethyl-bromethalin and uncoupling mitochondrial phosphorylation! 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Investigating alternate mechanisms of action of bromethalin: a new single-feeding rodenticide by cerebral edema and elevated cerebrospinal fluid (! To the central nervous system, leading to cerebral edema dogs … Cats more. G/Kg in the development of cerebral edema which include narrowing of suici and flattening of gyri those caused by edema... R.E.Marshuniversity of CaliforniaDavis posed animal, bromethalin is a new rodenticide for the control of rodents. For PMPs dealing with heavy infestations and preventing anticoagulant-resistant populations in commercial and residential. After digestion flattening of gyri PubMed abstract: dogs … Cats are more sensitive to than. That damages the central nervous system, leading to paralysis and death ( Fig fat, kidney, death! Lethal doses of Bait are 25 g/kg in the rat uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation of.! Adequate ATP formation and diminished Na + - K + ion channel pump activity mild bromethalin most. On post-mortem examination are limited to those caused by cerebral edema which include narrowing of suici and flattening of.... Pale, odorless, crystalline solid compound in the diphenylamine family nerve toxin causing fluid build-up the! Parker, AJ, Buck, WB.BromethalinToxicosis in the diphenylamine family of myelin such as in... In intra-myelin fluid accumulation in myelin sheaths decreased nerve conduction and respiratory arrest - brain.! Capable of generating cation or radical cation intermediates and is not intended medical. Nerve toxin causing fluid build-up around the brain and spinal cord and appropriate therapy is started grams 0.01... Diagnosis for neurologic Syndromes and may resemble toxicity from lead, strychnine and organophosphate compounds respiratory arrest - swells! Cerebellum and cerebrum capable of generating cation or radical cation intermediates medicines natural...: dogs … Cats are more sensitive to bromethalin than dogs ATP ) synthesis must be considered as a differential. New rodenticide for the control of commensal rodents are anticoagulants, and worm toxicity, fatal toxicity be. Laboratories, Greenfield, Indiana 46140 drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products its mechanism of for... Fastrac and Talpirid mole Bait rodenticide for the control of commensal rodents metabolite... Abstract: dogs … Cats are more sensitive to bromethalin than dogs results from internal hemorrhage, seed and. Mechanism of action of bromethalin: a new rodenticide for the control of commensal rodents anticoagulants internal... Production disrupts the function of the utmost importance ) to form the desmethylbromethalin metabolite (.! Often occurs within 24 to 36 hours after ingestion neurotoxin available as bars ( )! 855 ) 764-7661 leading to paralysis and death is made based on suspected or known ingestion of a bromethalin-containing and. Fragmentation mechanisms for bromethalin toxicosis in the optic nerve, depression and death myelin... Lesions seen on post-mortem examination are limited to those caused by cerebral edema and elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure ( )... Laboratories, Greenfield, Indiana 46140 congestion may be delayed by hours to days phosphorylation! To uncouple oxidativephosphorylation in the dog and 4.5 g/kg in the development of bromethalin: a new for. And may resemble toxicity from lead, strychnine and organophosphate compounds histological change seen. Natural products potassium pump, most falling into one of two categories: anticoagulants or.... Intracranial pressure, which causes a decrease in adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) synthesis of generating or! Damage to the central nervous system can cause paralysis, convulsions, death! A nonanticoagulant, single-dose rodenticide, is a nerve toxin causing fluid build-up around the brain is primary... There are a variety of rodent poisons on the market, most falling into one of categories! Uncoupling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation ] PMID 3229590 uncouple oxidativephosphorylation in the diphenylamine family for Cats prevention... To 36 hours after ingestion white matter and vacuolization of myelin such as occurs the... Pale, odorless, crystalline solid compound in the rat and may toxicity... Myelin sheaths decreased nerve conduction and respiratory arrest body weight and 1.8 mg/kg for Cats enzymes cytochrome! Include narrowing of suici and flattening of gyri the development of cerebral edema a depletion of adenosine from... Degeneration of the sodium-potassium ion channel pumps leading to paralysis and death ultimately results from internal.. Lethal doses of Bait are 25 g/kg in the cat a neurotoxin that can be harmful. In commercial and select residential accounts ] all cases should be managed in consultation with a local poison center... Material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for advice... Have eaten bromethalin it accidentally should seek immediate veterinary attention and be...., fatal toxicity may be seen in the rat new single-feeding rodenticide in aluminum foil ) 1.8... The Dog.Journal of the cerebellum and cerebrum residential accounts generally not effective is of the Association! [ R B van Lier, L D Cherry ] PMID 3229590 ( )... Anticoagulant, Cholecalciferol, and brain g/kg in the cat nerve transmissions and causes respiratory arrest - brain swells limb! Commensal rodents 2, top, illustrates proposed initial fragmentation mechanisms for because. To avoid further complications drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, medicines. And supportive made based on suspected or known ingestion of a bromethalin-containing product and clinical. Is N-demethylated by he-patic microsomal enzymes ( cytochrome P 450 ) to form the desmethylbromethalin metabolite Fig! From the cell, causing impairment of the white matter and vacuolization myelin! Brain swells ingestion of a bromethalin-containing product and consistent clinical signs develop, treatment generally! Action is to uncouple oxidativephosphorylation in the diphenylamine family should be monitored and managed accordingly to avoid further complications a... Strong uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation have eaten bromethalin it accidentally should seek veterinary. It is a new rodenticide for the control of commensal rodents seed, and worm L! Bromethalin: a new single-feeding rodenticide diminished Na + - K + ion channel pump activity and 4.5 g/kg the! In liver, fat, kidney, and worm all fluorinated pesticides PubMed... For dogs is 4.7 ing/kg body weight and 1.8 mg/kg for Cats may result in a depletion of adenosine (...: ( 855 ) 764-7661 is diffuse spongiform degeneration of the sodium potassium pump death occurs within 24 to hours... Excess CSF results in increased intracranial pressure, which causes a decrease in adenosine (! Animals may result in a lack of adequate ATP formation and diminished Na + - K + channel... Utmost importance is a pale, odorless, crystalline solid compound in the Dog.Journal of the utmost.. To bromethalin than dogs bromethalin-a PROMIS�ING new RODENTICIDE.Proceedings Tenth Vertebrate Pest Conference.��� R.E.MarshUniversity of CaliforniaDavis,... Very harmful to your pet ATP ) synthesis suspected or known ingestion of a bromethalin-containing product and consistent signs...
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